Scottish Ghosts

Scottish Ghosts and Phantoms - The Haunted History

Paranormal Definitions


Apparition: The visible, audible or physical manifestation of a spirit. Indications of an apparition can range from strange unexplained smells and cold spots to the inexplicable movement of objects from one place to another, or the witnessing of a  manifestation in visible form.  In some cases there is a sudden drop in temperature which is witnesses during the sighting. 

Apports:  When a physical object or objects seem to appear from nowhere without explanation.  These apports can usually be relevant to the spirit delivering them and can help in identity in who is trying to communicate.

Asports:  When a physical object or objects suddenly and completely vanish and cannot be explained. 

Automatic Writing:  A method of communication from spirit, this can be performed by a Medium, but can usually be attempted by just about anyone. The writer is typically unaware of what he/she is writing, and can produce pages of text that are thought to be the result of communicating through s spirit.  While many believe that this form of communication really does work, others do remain skeptical.

Aura:A final, outer layer of energy that surrounds the body and usually of a bright colour. 

Befriending Phenomena:  This is when a ghost can attempt to befriend a living person.

Clairaudient:  It is a word that refers to the ability to perceive sounds and voices that cannot be discerned through normal hearing. Many Mediums use Clairaudient when contacting the deceased, it can enable them to hear sounds and voices associated with a Spirit.

Clairsentient:  The combination of Clairaudient and Clairvoyance. It can also include the ability to perceive emotions, taste and other physical sensations that cannot be discerned via the normal senses.

Clairvoyance:  Clairvoyance is French for 'Clear Seeing'. It is a word that refers to the ability to perceive people and objects that cannot otherwise be discerned via the normal senses. Many mediums use Clairvoyance when contacting the deceased, it can enable them to visually perceive a Spirit.

Chakra: One of the seven points of energy within your body, these are described in the form of colour. 

Circle: A group of people, usually having mediumistic abilities, who gather to connect with spirit entities

Closed Circles: A group that meets regulary with the same members.  Many of these circles are conducted in Spiritualist Churches. 

Communicator: The spirit that is bringing the message to the medium.

Deathbed Visions:  The dying person while in bed will greet deceased relatives or friends.  In some cases the person will appear to greet people who are not known to them.

Discarnate Spirit: A spirit without a physical body.

Disembodied Voices:  When a person witnesses the inexplicable sound of voices although it is quite clear that no-one is present at the time.

Divination:  The art or practice of discovering future events or unknown things, through the use of tools such as Tarot Cards, Scrying Bowls/Mirrors, Crystal Balls, Divining Rod, Pendulums and other such items.

Divining Rod:  A forked twig said to move when held over ground in which water, metal, ley lines etc. is to be found. Usually done with a "Y" shaped twig, the individual dowsing will hold the stick by the forked end, and use the single end as a pointer. "Following" the rod will lead the dowser to the water/metal he is seeking, and vibrates when nearing the target in question. 

Door Phenomena:  The unexplained opening, closing, slamming, locking and unlocking of doors which does not appear to have any purpose to it.

Doppelganger: Someone who sees his/her own ghost or a duplicate of him/herself. This duplicate is always vague and transparent. According to a German superstition such an apparition was an omen of an imminent death. However, this phenomenon holds all signs of the autoscopic hallucination, caused by extreme stress, bad migraine, severe fatigue or mental disorders. 

Ectoplasm: Ectoplasm is said to be a cold and moist substance, responsible for the production of various materialisations which can be witnessed outside the medium’s body.

Electromagnetic Variations:  Unexplainable changes in the electromagnetic field, these can usually be detected and monitored with Guass and Trifield EMF Meters.

Extrasensory Perception - ESP: A general term to indicate the paranormal capacities in which information on something is obtained, without using the normal senses or without anyone’s help.

General Extrasensory Perception - GESP: Undifferentiated ESP during which telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition or retrocognition can operate simultaneously. 

Fraud: An intentional fake motivated by self-interest that is almost always financial.  Some alleged hauntings can be fraudulent and investigators always need to be aware of this fact.  The best method is to thoroughly check the location prior to the investigation and make copious notes, in which you can refer to later on. 

Healer: A person who may or may not be a medium, but who has the ability to receive healing energy from spirit and direct to people on the earth plane who are ill or injured physically, emotionally or spiritually.

Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: These hallucinations respectively happen during the moments before falling asleep and before waking up. The reason is because the brain has not completely entered or left the dream state, dream images can be projected in the shape of hallucinations, where the person is convinced they can see something which is not really there. This can explain many cases of alleged ghost sightings.

Intuition: Someone has an intuitive experience when he/she suddenly gets an insight or information about something without clear reasons, some people class part of this as a premonition.

Invocation: A prayer or formal greeting that invites spirit presence to come forward. 

Karma: The energy of cause and effect that you put out into the universe that comes back to you in this and other life times.

Levitation:  The act of being able to float in the air without support or without any apparant physical means. Some believe that levitation can be put down to a form of Telekinesis. There have also been cases of alleged levitation relating to hauntings, spirit possession and other Ghost related phenomena. This phenomena has not been totally proved yet by Scientists, but many magicians today will use this appearance in cleverly planned tricks.

Ley Lines:  Ley Lines are thought to be alignments of ancient and sacred sites, such as Stone Circles, churches, burial grounds and megaliths, and they are considered to be sources of powerful earth energies. The points where Ley Lines cross are often found to be the subject of various Ghost phenomena, as well as sightings of UFOs and mysterious lights. It has been suggested that spirits of the deceased draw energy from Ley Lines in order to help them manifest in various forms.

Medium:  A term given to an individual who is capable of contacting the spirits of the deceased.  In addition, a Medium can often have a 'Spirit Guide', an entity that stays with them and assists in contacting the deceased. 

Near Death Experiences - NDE: Experiences some people had when they were clinically dead. These experiences range from floating through a lit tunnel to a meeting with a presence of light. These experiences are usually reported by people who are very ill at the time, some researchers believe that NDE is another form of hallucination.

Out-of-the-Body Experience - OBE: The feeling that the consciousness has been literally separated from the body, again OBE could also be classed as a form of hallucination.

Parapsychology: The scientific study of Psi-phenomena.

Percipient: The person who is experiencing ESP.

Precognition: The prediction of some random events without making use of references that are perhaps present now or were present in the past.

Psychic: Person who allegedly claims or appears to possess some paranormal skills. Most Mediums claim to have this ability

Psychokinesis - PK: The psyche’s direct influence on an external, physical system or object caused by currently unknown physical processes. 

Paranormal Phenomena: Unusual events, sensations, unusual sounds and sights for which there are no obvious explanations.

Reiki: An ancient system of healing using hands on.

Reincarnation: The return of the spirit to a physical body and physical existence. Many cases of this phenomena seem to become apparent during hypnosis and are recorded on tape.

Sleep Paralysis: The person wakes up, but can’t move. This experience can be accompanied by the feeling of a presence in the room and a feeling that something heavy is going to sit on the body.  

Seance:  A meeting in which a group of people attempt to receive messages from the spirits of the deceased. The word seance originates from the French séance, meaning sit, session. Those participating in the seance will conventionally either sit around a table or stand/sit in a circle, holding hands and may wish to ring in a bell in the hope that this will summon spirit to come forward from the other side.  Table tipping can also be conducted under the same conditions, during the seance the participants will carefully observe for a movemnet in the table which is not associated to them.   

Spirit:  It is a common belief that all living things have a Spirit or 'Soul', a sentient entity that although does not exist physically, is still self-aware and capable of perceiving it's surroundings. Many religions regard the Spirit as the very essence of a living being, and that it persists after death. Some also belief that the human body is simply a physical vessel that the Spirit interfaces with during the lifetime of the individual, and departs once the body has died.

Spiritualism: A faith based on belief in the continuity of life beyond physical death.

Trance:  In general terms a trance is a hypnotic or cataleptic state, in which an individual remains awake but is mostly unaware of their surroundings. Hypnosis for example often induces a trance like state. Spiritualist mediums can also enter into a trance while attempting to contact the spirits of the deceased.

Trancefiguration: A spirit's physical characteristics superimposed over a medium's features, presenting an image of the spirit entity. This can usually be witnessed as the medium sits in dark conditions with the aid of a red light.

Telekinesis:  The ability to move an object with thought or willpower alone, without the application of a physical force. Some believe that Telekinesis is created by higher levels of consciousness, and that it cannot be created by 'wishing it' to happen on the physical level. The energy to move or bend an object is created by a person's thoughts created by their subconscious mind. 
Telepathy:Telepathy indicates a communication between two or more psyches, and appears to be without making use of the five known senses.

Transcommunication: Alleged communication with the afterlife or with another reality by means of audio- and video-equipment. It is believed that voices or images of deceased people appear on the tape. This phenomenon is sometimes also called Electronic Voice Phenomenon (EVP) or Raudive Voices.

Vortex: A vortex is a manifestation of energy, often associated with ghosts and spirits.  Some people believe a vortex is a gateway to the spirit world, through which spirits can travel, they are also classed alongside orbs, as manifestations of spirits. They can also be referred to as vortices and can sometimes appear as anomalous whirlwind-shaped objects on photographs taken in allegedly haunted locations.

Zener Cards: A deck of 25 cards, with 5 cards each of 5 symbols, that scientists use to measure telepathic ability, usually under test conditions.